Name: Sony Mavica Thumbnail Image Format


Policy Summary: 411 is an obsolete proprietary file format for thumbnail images produced by an early digital still camera, the Sony Mavica. We retain 411 files in born digital electronic records to maintain collection integrity.

Logical Extensions: 411

Related File Formats:

File rendering profiles:

Name Status Software (Version) OS (Version) Content Types File Extensions
411 active () Windows (7) 411


Pronom ID Version


rimkus - 2016-08-23

411 files are thumbnail images produced by an early digital still camera, the Sony Mavica. The software to open them is not easily available. In our experience, these unopenable proprietary thumbnail files are typically complemented in our collections by full-size JPGs. Some would say that such files ought to be discarded on ingest and not retained at all—after all, if usable thumbnails are needed, they can be generated from the full-size image files stored in the same folder. However, the model name “Mavica” does not show up in any of the technical metadata for the full-size JPEG from which this thumbnail was derived, and the only way to know that this camera was used at all is because the associated thumbnail file with extension 411 was retained in the repository. From this perspective, the 411 file possesses potential research value. It provides evidence of the camera the person who took the photo used. It also demonstrates how an early digital camera platform generated thumbnail images. A technically useless file, it nevertheless provides historical context to the creation of other files in the collection, ensuring an unbroken “archival bond ” between bit-streams.


Normalization Paths

Name Input Extension Output Extension Output Format Software Operating System